這裡我要教你一個普通美國高一生都知道的常識,但是台灣好像很少大學英文通識課有教,那就是英文文章的基本架構。不過我不是要說抒情文和小說的結構,而是說服讀者或是說明某事的文章,例如論說文和各種報告。但是請注意不包括新聞。


了解了文章架構,以後寫學校論文,還有考托福的閱讀測驗都用得上。這是留學考試補習班會教你的一個大重點,所以看這篇文章你等於省了至少台幣1000元的補習費。


你問為什麼我要免費教你?因為我覺得跟你收費教你國外公立高中學校教的東西很 LOW,就這麼簡單。

 

*New* (2012-08-01) Tips from Redeemer University College Writing Center (Canada)

好啦,現在開始吧!

 

第一段,有時是前幾段,叫做 the introduction (簡稱 intro),就是要告訴讀者你這篇要探討的問題是甚麼。

最後一段是 the conclusion,就是要告訴讀者看過這篇文章後,他該記得哪些重點。

 

中間的段落統稱為 the body paragraphs (簡稱 the body)。

每一段都有四種東西,我想應該不難懂:

第一句話,甚至有時是兩句話,但是不會到三句話,用來告訴讀者這段將要發表的意見或是要說服你的點(一一列舉),叫做 the topic sentence。(以下用紅色畫出來)

最後一句話,或倒數兩句話,但是通常不會到三句話,用來下這段的結論,叫做 the concluding sentence。(以下用紅色畫出來)

中間就是每個意見的申論,這包括主張 claims (以下用藍色畫出來) 和相對照的舉證 evidence (請別只舉證,還要說明證據)。

 

聽起來很有邏輯,很簡單,但是實際上需要很長一段時間練習才能寫得乾乾淨淨、條理不雜亂。一般美國人到了大學二三年級寫作才會成熟,這樣共花了6-7年時間磨練。

 

因此有些文章很難畫結構出來,有時候甚至用一段來當引言 the topic paragraph,接下來幾段為 claims and evidence。我以下面這篇敘述文為例。

 

INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK "Formosa Calling: An Eyewitness Account of Conditions in Taiwan during the February 28th, 1947 Incident" (1998)


My father, Allan James Shackleton, wrote “Formosa Calling” in 1948, immediately after his return to New Zealand. He was strongly motivated by “interests of peace, justice and humanity” and the need for the conditions in Formosa to be more widely known.

For fifty years “Formosa Calling” has lain unpublished among our family’s memorabilia. Brief extracts were however included in George H Kerr’s book “Formosa Betrayed” which was first published in Great Britain in 1966.

As a result of these references, and as part of their fiftieth commemoration of what had become known as the “February 28th incident”, the New Zealand branch of the Taiwanese Association traced our family’s whereabouts, and convinced us that we should publish his manuscript.

My father was an extremely moral man in the old-fashioned and Christian mold. Presbyterian by upbringing and later a Quaker with strong pacifist convictions, his surprise and abhorrence of what he considered to be immoral activities in Taiwan in 1947 can be clearly seen throughout the text. The corruption of the Nationalist regime, the abject poverty to which they reduced the Taiwanese population, and the violent behaviour of the Nationalist soldiers and the bloodbath they created are clearly outside the moral limits he set for himself and others. Being a Westerner of the old school, he had a different perception of how a society should conduct itself even in times of upheaval. He himself fought in a war that was so “civilised” (if that may be said of armed conflict) that the two sides agreed to stop for Christmas and had to be goaded by their officers into starting again! Given this background, his disgust and sadness for what he saw in Taiwan in 1947 is understandable.

On his way home from Formosa on the 15th of December, 1947, he made a shortwave broadcast from Sydney, Australia, in which he gave an account of conditions in Taiwan under Wei Tao-ming’s “reform government”. George H Kerr wrote, “the broadcast was a strong indictment and was heard on Formosa where it provoked a furious reaction. Stanway Cheng’s propagandists took the line that the British and American Imperialists had the same ambitions which had fired the Nazis and the Japanese, but were more clever about it; America and Britain brought UNNRA supplies as deceptive gifts and offered ‘aid to China’ as a decoy while plotting to annex, exploit and ‘enslave’ Formosa”.

“Formosa Calling” is not an official report of events in Taiwan in 1947. Nor was it written by a professional writer, or with the help of a professional editor or shadow-writer, as such accounts are often written today. Instead, this work was written by a professional engineer, teacher, and one-time soldier.

My father made several attempts to publish “Formosa Calling” after its completion in 1948 but was unsuccessful. Rather than accept that the market for his work was limited, he became convinced that no publisher would publish anything so critical of our “Chinese Nationalist allies”.

He himself acknowledges that is difficult to classify “Formosa Calling” into any one category. At once it is a personal account, a description of the comparative conditions under the Japanese and Nationalist Chinese, and a political commentary. In its role as a personal account, we see many of my father’s personal interests evidencing themselves. For example, there is much discussion of railways, factories and bridges, schools and universities, and a chapter on Christianity in Taiwan, all of which were dear to his heart.

As a comparison of the Japanese and Nationalist Chinese government of Taiwan, a clear preference on my father’s part for the Japanese is evident. Incongruous though this may seem, given the Allies’ recent war with them and the Japanese atrocities that were ultimately revealed, his focus for the comparison was twofold - the industrial and agricultural development which Japan gave to the country, and the relative levels of human rights under each regime.

Though the Japanese regime was strict, it is clear that he considered that Japanese rule was fair and acceptable by comparison with the sheer violence and corruption which he saw in Taiwan in 1947. From his position as a UN officer in the field in Taiwan, he was more concerned with the welfare of the Taiwanese people than he was with the global strategic situation, and hence some of his political assessments must be seen against the background of the situation in which he found himself. For example, his prediction that Soviet communism would envelop Chinese communism has been proved false by history. Nevertheless, my father has written an honest account of the atrocities which took place in Taiwan in 1947, and his interpretation of their causes and implications for world history.

Colin James Shackleton.
Wellington, New Zealand.
15 January, 1998.

 

You may download this book HERE.

 

copyright (c) 2012 E.V.L International Consultings Ltd.

請尊重作者著作權,轉貼前請告知本人,謝謝。


 

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To Live! And to Write for Life!

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  • 請問這跟上面的文章有關嗎?看不懂...

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